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Version 0.0.1, March 2017

What is this?

txt2epub is a command-line utility for Linux, for converting one or more plain text files into an EPUB document. It will insert the standard author/title meta-data, generate a table of contents, and can include a cover image. Limited formatting is possible using Markdown-style text markup, or full XHTML if required.

This utility is intended as a relatively quick way to convert books provided as plain text into a format that can be handled more easily by e-readers. Although most portable reading devices and software can handle plain text perfectly well, the lack of meta-data or a cover image makes collections of such documents unwieldy.

Although it is not its main function, txt2epub can be used with just a plain text editor to produce a commercial-quality EPUB novel, that will pass most publishers' validation checks. However, books that have complex formatting, or embedded images, need a more sophisticated approach.

One of the design goals of txt2epub is to produce "clean" documents, free of software-specific stylesheets and formatting. The EPUBs it creates will not specify fonts, absolute text sizes, colours, margins, or layout. The way the text is rendered is thus completely under the control of the reader. Its output should thus be acceptably readable on screens of different sizes.

Example usage

txt2epub\ -o\ dickens_great_expectations.epub \
   --author\ "Dickens,\ Charles"\ --title\ "Great\ Expectations" \ 
   --cover-image ge.jpg\
   chapter01.txt chapter02.txt chapter03.txt\ ...
Convert files chapter01.txt, etc., into an EPUB document, setting the author and title meta-data appropriately. Each file will receive an entry in the table of contents. The image ge.jpg will form the book cover.


The only external dependencies are on the standard linux zip utility, and the PCRE regular expression parsing library. Both should be available in the repositories of most Linux distributions. For RHEL/Fedora: yum install zip pcre-devel.

txt2epub will probably build and run on other Linux-like systems, but this has not been tested.

Building and installing

The usual:
$ make
$ sudo make install


Markdown support

Unless it is disabled (--ignore-markdown), txt2epub processes a small set of markdown-type formatting markers:
#This is a heading
##This is a subheading
###This is a subsubheading
This is _italic_. This is *bold*
A line that ends in two spaces (which may not be visible at all in a text editor) is terminated with a line-break. This is a simple way to include pre-formatted text.

These markdown constructions are turned into basic (X)HTML tags (not style classes).

Note that Markdown-style markup cannot span lines. A very long italic passage, for example, must be rendered as a single line, or the italic marker repeated on subsequent lines. txt2epub does not support Markdown list constructs, but these could be created using (X)HTML tags, if desired.

XHTML support

Any text files supplied to txt2epub are just inserted into the body of an XHTML document, as this is the presentation format that EPUB specifies. It follows that files can contain XHTML markup if necessary. XHTML is a stricter standard than HTML, and many ordinary HTML files will not pass muster — a typical problem is not closing tags, or using the wrong letter case in tags.

Providing XHTML can be useful for heavily formatted pages such as a title page or dedication. However, the files provided should not be full XHTML files — txt2epub will write the proper XHTML header and footer. Instead, just provide the body text.

Many commercial e-readers use existing HTML rendering software to display text; in such cases you might get away with using ordinary HTML. However, it isn't strictly correct, and won't pass a publisher's validation checks.

Table of contents

txt2epub does not write a contents page in the document. However, it does write an NCX table of contents, which most e-readers will be able to display at any point whilst reading a book. This form of table of contents also enables the next-chapter/previous-chapter controls on readers that have them.

By default, the entries in the table of contents will be taken from the input filename, after removing any extension. So a nicely-formatted table of contents will require that the filenames are as a reader should see them, with capital letters where appropriate and spaces between words.

An alternative approach to generating a table of contents is to ensure that the first line of each file is a chapter heading, and use the --first-lines switch. This will also format the first line as a heading (specifically, it will embed it in an H1 tag).

Input text formatting issues

E-book text files tend to be formatted in one of four ways:
  • One very long line per paragraph, with a blank line between each paragraph
  • One very long line per paragraph, with no blank lines between paragraphs
  • Variable-length lines with blank lines to indicate paragraph breaks
  • Variable-length lines with no blanks; paragraph breaks are indicated by white-space intended lines
No special effort is required to handle the first type. The second type will be formatted by most readers as a solid block of uninterrupted text, which is not pleasant to read. The --extra-para switch might help here, by inserting a paragraph break after each input line.

Files of the third type present no problem.

txt2epub attempts to handle the fourth type by treating any line that starts with three or more whitespace characters as a paragraph break. Because some files that are formatted as variable-length lines end up with spaces at the start of each line, this behaviour can be turned off using --ignore-indent.


txt2epub will read from standard input (stdin) if a minus sign (-) is used for the filename. It will be necessary to specify the EPUB filename (-o) in such a case.

Cover image support

The switch --cover-image can be used to provide the EPUB document with a leading cover page. This image is presented as a single-page without any annotation, at the start of the book. EPUB guidelines suggest that a cover image should be 590 pixels wide by 750 high. No check is made that the image meets this guideline — it is simply copied into the EPUB. An error message will be shown if the image file does not exist, but the EPUB will still be created.

The EPUB specification states that images files must be in JPEG, GIF, SVG, or PNG formats. txt2epub will install images of any type but, as with wrongly sized images, EPUB viewers vary in their willingness to display them.


Splitting long documents

txt2epub has no built-in support for splitting long text files into sections or chapters. There are many ways in which this might be done, and Linux already has useful utilities for doing it.

Consider, for example, a long file called fred.txt, that is divided into sections headed by "Chapter 1", "Chapter 2", etc. This can be split into chapters like this:

csplit -f chapter_ -b %02d.txt fred.txt /Chapter.*/ {*}
This command will create the files chapter_00.txt, chapter_01.txt, etc. These chapters can then be assembled into an EPUB like this:
txt2epub -a "Fred Blogs" -t "My Life as a Dog" -f -o blogs.epub\ chapter*.txt
(being careful about the use of the filename wildcard, as discussed above.)

The -f switch instructs txt2epub to use the first line of each file as a chapter heading, both in formatting and in the table of contents. This works because the use of csplit ensures that every file (with the possible exception of the first) begins with the specified pattern.

Character encoding

EPUB text is required to be formatted as UTF-8. Plain ASCII works fine, as it is a subset of UTF-8. 8-bit extended ASCII variants will display with varying degrees of ugliness, depending on how many extended characters are used. A typical symptom of encoding mismatches of this sort is to see double-quotes rendered as upside-down question marks, or similar punctuation errors.

txt2epub assumes that all text input is in UTF-8 or ASCII format. If this assumption causes problems, the iconv utility may be used to pre-process the text and fix the encoding. Unfortunately, if you receive a text document that has been converted from Microsoft Word or some other proprietary word processor, it can often be quite difficult to guess what the character encoding is. Consequently, some trial-and-error may be needed.

Converting PDF, etc

txt2epub can not decode PDF documents, but reasonable results may sometimes be obtained by using it to process the output of pdftotext -layout -nopgbrk. The -layout switch tells pdftotext to attemp to preserve page layout; this is usually impossible, but it does mean that you will usually get blank lines between paragraphs. These are needed for txt2epub to identify paragraph breaks. The -nopgbrk prevents page break (ctrl-L) characters being written into the text. These don't usually cause problems in EPUB viewers — they are usually ignored. But, strictly speaking, they are illegal in UTF-8 XML.

Documents converted from print sources often have page numbers and other unhelpful text embedded in the document body. Most of this is difficult to remove, but txt2epub will attempt to remove page numbers, if the --remove-pagenum switch is specified. A page number is taken to be any line that consists of white space, followed by digits. Unfortunately, while (for example) a single line containing "23" will be removed, "Page 23" won't. Documents with this kind of detritus may need more sophisticated pre-processing.

Bugs and limitations

txt2epub presently does not remove unnecessary byte-order markers and similar encoding detritus from text files.

Users should be wary of using constructions like "book*.txt" to include lists of files. While Linux shells usually present files in alphanumeric order, subtleties like locale and collation settings can modify this.

Files created by this utility will not necessarily pass the validation in epubcheck because the "mimetype" file is not always the first in the archive. This can be fixed if it causes problems with readers; so far it has not.

txt2epub does not write a "guide" section in the NCX table-of-contents. This is optional and, so far as I know, no EPUB reader takes much notice of it.

More information

More detailed command-line usage information is avaialble in the manual: man txt2epub.

Legal, etc

txt2epub is maintained by Kevin Boone, and distributed under the terms of the GNU Public Licence, version 3.0. Essentially, you may do whatever you like with it, provided the original author is acknowledged, and you accept the risks involved in its use.


The most up-to-date source will always be found by checking out the github repository. Alternatively, download the source code bundle.
Copyright © 1994-2015 Kevin Boone. Updated Mar 23 2017